The Capitol Grounds at Harrisburg turned into a camp [Theodore R. Davis sketch which first appeared in Harper's Weekly, October 4, 1862]. www.sonofthesouth.net
The Pennsylvania Legislature had created laws concerning the creation and utilization of a state militia back during the American Revolution, with periodic updates over the next eighty years. During the threatened Confederate invasion in September and October 1862, Governor Andrew G. Curtin used the Militia Act of 1858 as legal grounds to call out the militia for the duration of the emergency (he would again call them out in 1863 during the Gettysburg Campaign).
On September 4, the governor issued this directive:
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 33– In the name and by authority of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Andrew G. Curtin, Governor of the said Commonwealth.
Whereas, in the present position of affairs, it is expedient that measures should be taken to arm and prepare our people for defence. Now, therefore, I do earnestly recommend the immediate formation throughout the Commonwealth of volunteer companies and regiments, in conformity with the Militia act of 1858. Arms will be distributed to organizations so to be formed, agreeably to the provisions of that act.
It is further recommended that, in order to give due opportunities for drill and instruction, all places of business be closed daily at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, so that all persons employed therein may, after that hour, be at liberty to attend to their military duties.
The cheerful alacrity with which the men of Pennsylvania have hitherto given themselves to the service of the country, has pressed heavily on her military resources.
I am reluctant to ask her people to assume further burdens, but as their safety requires that they should do so, it is in their behalf that I put forth the recommendations herein contained and urge a prompt compliance with them.
Given under my hand and the great seal of the State at Harrisburgh, this 4th day of September, in the year of our Lord, 1862, and of the Commonwealth the eighty-seventh. By the Governor.
ELI SLIFER, Secretary of State.
Among the men who responded in downtown York was a company with some of the leading young businessmen and civic leaders. Captained by Dr. Charles Nes (son of a former U.S. congressman), the company included Arthur Briggs Farquhar (a young industrialist who a year later would play a key role in the surrender of York to Confederate generals Jubal Early and John Gordon), John Rutter (of the family which founded the Rutter’s dairy chain), businessman/farmer John Brillinger, sheriff Samuel Waring, and others. Several other companies also contained a sprinkling of local luminaries including members of the Loucks family (for which Loucks Road is named).
According to Prowell’s History of York County, “When the enemy threatened to invade Pennsylvania, Home Guards, were organized at York, for the defence of the town. These companies were sworn into the service on September 12 and continued to drill and practice until September 24. The danger of the enemy approaching York had been averted by the battle at Antietam. These companies, which were fully armed and equipped, were mustered out of service on September 24. The following is the muster roll of the different companies of Home Guards at York:
Captain — Jacob Wiest
First Lieutenant — Emanuel Smith
Second Lieutenant — Augustus Loucks
First Sergeant — Henry Shelly
Sergeants — Edward J. Chalfant, William F. Shetter, Benjamin Allison, John Kraber
Corporals — Charles H. Weigle, Michael Wiest, Daniel Sourbier, Jacob H. Shetter, John H. Wanbaugh, David Kielholtz, George F. Baugher, Charles Metzel
Musicians — Abdel Hilyers, George Shetter
Privates — Henry Abel, John R. Andrews, Moses Arndt, Joshua Bennett, Edward Baum, John F. Derr, Jacob Ernst, George W. Epply, John Frederick. John P. Frick, Edward Graybill, Charles Gresly, Albert Glassmeyer. Elias F. Graham, Michael Hoffman, Franklin B. Harlacher, John Harkins, William Harkins. John Hessler, William Hossler, John Hawkins, David Jamison, William Keister, Frederick J. Kottkamp, Henry Kottkamp, Sr., Jacob Kauffelt, Frederick Kleffman, Henry Kottkamp, Jr., Edward C. Lauman, Henry Lint, John Meeter, George F. Motter, Henry Neater, Edward Neas, Henry Ness, Charles A. Pentz, David P. Shultz, George L. Stough, Samuel Sourbier, Jacob Sourbier, Jacob Sherefy, Henry Strine, Samuel Shaffer, Henry Schalle, Henry Shaffer, John C. Schroeder, Henry Scheeter, Charles Spangler, Henry Strelig, Daniel Withers, Martin L. Weigle, Jacob D. Welch, Daniel Wampler, J. Frederick Yingling, Albertus Young
Captain — Jacob Hay
First Lieutenant — William Gilberthrop
Second Lieutenant — Daniel B. Immell
First Sergeant — Washington Bierbower
Sergeants — George Weirman, Thomas E. Cochran, William Hay, Abraham W. Rudisill, Edward Stuck
Corporals — William M. Frysinger, John Fahs, John Shive, James Kell, William W. Dingee, Jacob Andrews, George Horn
Musician — William Poleman
Privates — John Busser, Emanuel C. Beck, John Borland, John W. Buckingham, John M. Brown, William C. Fischer, James Groff, Henry Ginter, Henry Gresly, John Hay, Jacob Hantz, Samuel Hame, Henry Haker, Daniel Heckert, George W. Ilgenfritz, Martin Ilgenfritz, Harrison Ilgenfritz, Samuel Kitzmiller, Jacob Keeney, Simon Kopp, Jacob L. Keuhn, Alexander Kidd, Charles Laumaster, Anthony Leiben. George Mundorff, George W. Neff, Jonathan Owen, Thomas Owen, Sr., John Platts, George Rudisill, Henry Rutledge, John W. Schall, Charles F. Sheafer, Jacob Spangler, John Schall, Alexander Shetter, John Small, Isaac Shelly, John Strickler, William Shelly, Lewis Shive, Daniel Stough, John Truett, Oliver P. Weiser, Thomas White, Martin H. Weiser, William Wolf
Captain — D. Wagner Barnitz
First Lieutenant — George J. Spangler
Second Lieutenant — John W. Shirer
First Sergeant — George H. Maish
Sergeants — Levi Strickler, John Strickler, Albert Hay, John A. Beitzel
Corporals — Frederick Klinefelter, Oliver H. Wells, Jerome Fisher, Amos Mitzell, Henry Buck, Alexander Hildebrand, George Wagner, Milton Johnston
Privates— Williiam H. Albright, Jacob Asseman, Adam K. Baylor, Jacob Blauser, William Call, John Connelly, Charles Cook, George W. Dietz, L. Doll, Jacob B. Fishel, Joel E. Fisher, George Foose, William Frame, William Fried, George S. Frey, Martin Frey, Augustus F. Gotwalt, Joseph W. Ilgenfritz, George Ilgenfritz, Albert Ilgenfritz, William Jacobs, Victor V. Kelton, William Koch, William Lloyd, Adam E. Mayers, David Myers, Andrew J. McLaughlin, Bernard McFarland, George Odenwalt, Philip Odenwalt, August Rouse, Daniel Rittenhouse, Josiah W. Sleider, George P. Smyser, William Straber, Edward Straber, Louis Shenberger, George W. Steig, Luther A. Small, Albert Small, William Sponsler, Henry Swartz, Charles A. Strack, John G. Schaffer, John Schott, Michael Seitz, John Tomes, Hamilton H. Treager, John Vandersloot, Charles Wagner, Louis E. Wagner, Alarcellus G. Weiser, George Weiser, Howard H. Welsh, Lewis Weller, Emanuel C. Yessler, John Zeller, Walter Zimmerman
Captain — William H. Albright
First Lieutenant — George Smith
Second Lieutenant — John H. Klinedinst
First Sergeant — William Swartz
Sergeants—Charles W. Stebbins, Lewis L. Sears, William H. H. Erwin, Samuel Rudy
Corporals — Samuel Funk, Henry Reily, Charles N. Brannon, Isaac Goodman, John Heckert, Charles O. Fields, Frederick Bastean, John Epply
Musician — Harry A. Spangler
Privates— ]ohn W. Bittenger, Charles H. Bressler, Martin Basehore, John Crone, Clayton Craver, Howard Duvall, John G. Ernst, James Ensminger, Emanuel Erb, Robert Fields, Romanus Greenawalt, George W. F. Gray, Albert Heckert, Edward Helfrich, Alfred Helsel, Frederick Hibner, Christian Hinkle, Daniel C. Ilgenfritz, Daniel Jacobs, James Johnston, George Koons, Jacob Kraft, John Kline, Emanuel Kissinger, William T. Laumaster, Philip Lehr, William H. Lochman, William Loy, Samuel Alyers, John Miller, Albert Metzel, William McIlvaine, John B. Oswald, Andrew Pfile, John Rouse, Andrew J. Reiley, George W. Reichenbach, John Siegle, Henry Stine, Augustus Strack, Adam Spangler, Jacob Smith, Alexander Smith, William Warner, Samuel H. Welsh, David A. Wilhelm, Jeremiah Yaple, William Zeigle
Captain — John Hays
First Lieutenant — John M. Deitch
Second Lieutenant — James H. Fisher
First Sergeant — Alexander Duncan
Sergeants — Edward G. Smyser, George W. Ruby, Zacharias Dugan, Daniel D. Doudel
Corporals — Peter McGuigan, Nathaniel Weigle, William Beitzel, Henry L. Fisher, Andrew J. Bashers, Thomas McCann, Andrew K. Glessner, Alfred Koch
Privates — George Albright, Henry Bajdor, George A. Barnitz, George Beck, William B. Carter, Barney Conley, Jeremiah Cullison, Daniel Crerand, Daniel Densel, Patrick Dawson, Henry Everhart, Abraham Forry, Charles Fishel, Enos M. Frame, William Froelich, Martin Frey, Jr., Jacob E. Fisher, Samuel Gotwalt, Jacob Gotwalt, Sr., Daniel Gotwalt, John Horn, Jr., Jeremiah Hess, Abraham Hearshy, Joseph Heard, Samuel Ilgenfritz, Henry Ilgenfritz, James W. Kerr, Adam Klinefelter, Augustus Knudson, Charles W. Karg, George A. Karg, August Leibhart, William Leidlich, John Minnon, Moses Morritz, John Morrow, Abraham Musser, Henry Philby, Frederick Plitt, August Plitt, Alexander Reisinger, John F. Reinberger, Barnard Rhodenhouser, Jacob Reichley, Michael Schall, David Small, Peter Schoch, Charles Spangler, Ambrose Smith, William Small, Henry Spangler, Henry Schuyler, Charles Schnable, Frederick A. Steig. Walter Shaeffer, Henry Stallman, Lebrecht Treager, Alexander Underwood, John A. Wilson, James West, Joseph Welsh, Joseph Watt, William Watt, Henry Weltzhoffer, Anthony Weaver, William Wagner, Sr., Jacob Wagner, Jacob Yunker, John Zimmerman
Captain — John Gibson
First Lieutenant — Charles A. Stair
Second Lieutenant — William H. Jordan
First Sergeant — George P. Smyser
Sergeants — William L. Stough, Charles S. Weiser, George Fisher, Samuel I. Adams
Corporals — Francis M. Eppley, Edwin R. Burke, Edward C. Eichelberger, William Falls, George W. Heiges, George L. Hay, Edwin Heckert, Thomas S. Meyers
Musician — David A. Decker
Privates — Murray S. Adams, Charles Ansley, Emmett B. Bossier, John Brillhart, Chauncey F. Black, Crayton W. Brandt, William Chambers, Charles Donnell. Edward D, Eppley, Lewis H. Eppley, Weter Eck, Martin S. Eichelberger, Isaac A. Elliott, Silas H. Forry, George Foose, Henry K. Gardner, William H. Griffith, Cornelius Garretson, Ivan Glossbrenner, Hollingsworth Gipe, Alfred Gartman, Johns Hopkins, Henry Haker, John C. Jordan, Milton S. Johnson, Charles A. Keyworth, William H. Kurtz, James Kell, Daniel Keller, Nathan T. Keesey, Jacob E. Lehman, James W. Latimer, Edward B. Meyers, George Meredith, William Meredith, Peter Mclntyre, Jr., Martin P. McCreary, John McIntyre, Samuel Owens, William N. Porter, George H. Pentz, George Rudisill, Albert W. Rudisill, Thomas J. Rupert, James B. Small, John H. Strayer, Thomas B. Schall, Jr., Lewis W. Schaeffer, W. H. Strickler, Henry W. Spangler, Joseph G. Small, James F. Shunk, Joseph H. Strubinger, George W. Stouffer, Jacob A. Wilt, L. Edward Wagner, Charles F. Welch, Geoffrey P. Yost, A. Duncan Yocum, Herman Zeigler
Captain — Charles M. Nes
First Lieutenant — John Brillinger
Second Lieutenant — Samuel Warring
First Sergeant — Martin Quinn
Sergeants — Edward Brillinger, A. B. Farquhar, Henry J. Loucks, William Loucks
Corporals — Alfred Erwin, Emanuel A. King, A. Hamilton Nes, John B. Rutter, W. L. Small, Martin H. Weiser. Erastus H. Weiser, Thomas Williams
Buglers — Jacob Roman, Philip Hecker
Privates — Jacob Brillinger, N. F. Burnham, Daniel Cookes, John T. Erwin, Arthur N. Green, James Groff, Philip Herman, Henry Hertzog, Edward G. Hersh, Thomas Holland, John Herman, Jonathan Jessop, William S. King, George Koons, Vincent K. Keesey, Anthony Lieben, Samuel Leitner, Josiah E. Myers, Henry Myers, Jr., Leander H. Myers, Daniel A. Rupp, James Rupert, Edward P. Smyser. Frederick Stallman, Milton Sultzbach, William Smith, Michael Schall, Jacob D. Schall, James Schall, Alexander W. Underwood, Amos Underwood, John Wanbaugh, Thomas E. White, Welsh, Henry Wagner