York Airport building along Haines Road

York Airport operated in the fields west of Haines Road from 1930 to 1937 and included the pictured administration building. In 1953 the home at 560 Haines Road, shown in the lower half, was constructed around the core of that airport building. The principal additions: garage added to the south side, bedrooms added to the north side and east front, number of windows drastically reduced with a change of style, and a new roof covering everything.

Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the original comparison photo in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of the photo, or if it has been removed from the ydr.com site.

I had long heard about the 560 Haines Road home’s connection to the first York County commercial airport; which opened on October 25, 1930. Pittsburgh Airways was the airport operator; providing air service to New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Until recently a huge bush had always obscured getting a good comparison photo of the present home versus the photo of the airport administration building, which appears in a 1951 York Chamber of Commerce Publication.

According to John F.M. Wolfe’s book “Profile of Aviation, York County, Pa. 1925-1998,” the administration building, “housed the operations office of the York Airport and Pittsburgh Airways. It also contained a ticket office, passenger waiting room and a restaurant operated by Monroe King.”

Last week I discovered that house was for sale, however I could not go through it because it was already under contract, and as of this week it has been sold. It would have been neat to see all the evident remnants of the airport structure.

In 1930, the cost to fly from the York Airport along Haines Road to New York City was $14.40 and included no extra charge for the first 30 pounds of baggage. The overall travel time was 1-hour, 45-minute; which included a short stopover in Philadelphia. In 1930 the flights into New York City landed in Newark, NJ.

After the airport closed at the Haines Road location in 1937, the metal hanger was dismantled and reconstructed at Piper Aircraft in Lock Haven, Pa. For several years after the airport closed the administration building became the center for a State Police drivers license exam site. The exam involved driving the usually well rutted dirt access road to the former airfield, past the administration building and out onto Haines Road.

John F.M. Wolfe wrote in his book: “Following the policeman’s complaints, Paul Schiding and a group of boys who had spent their leisure time at the airport doing odd jobs for free airplane rides, were given the privilege of hauling wheelbarrows of dirt on hot summer days to smooth out the roadway.”

The York County History Center’s Agricultural and Industrial Museum contains a neat model of the Haines Road airport. Paul Schiding and his cousin, Allen Bond, spent five years building the scale model right down to correctly scaled beams and wooden panels in the buildings and hangers. That model was unveiled at the museum in 2006.

Links to related posts:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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Small’s Codorus Mill at Canal Lock No. 3

YorksPast continues the series of posts exploring the history of the Codorus Canal. Completed in November of 1833, this canal allowed navigating 70-foot long canal boats between downtown York and the Susquehanna River.

Part six explores Small’s Codorus Mill; built concurrently with Dam No. 3 and Lock No. 3 of the Codorus Navigation Company. This illustration is labeled “Small’s Codorus Mill” within the P. A. & S. Small publication on their “Reminiscences of One Hundred Years 1809-1909” in business. It comes from the section titled, “The Manufacture of Flour;” quoting the first paragraph of that section:

“In 1830 George Small commenced the erection of a flour mill in Spring Garden Township and called it the Spring Garden Mill. The first flour was used either locally or hauled by wagon to Philadelphia and Baltimore, where it was sold on commission. In 1830 and 1831 the local supply of wheat proved insufficient, and [beginning in 1833] large quantities were brought down the Susquehanna and up the new canal constructed by the Codorus Navigation Company to York. About 1835 P. A. & S. Small erected Codorus Mills.”

I’ve added a light color tint, to the water and sky, on the original B&W illustration to better highlight Small’s Codorus Mill. I’ve annotated the location of the mill’s head and tail races, plus the westward end of Dam No. 3, of the Codorus Navigation Company. The dam was built at this point on the Codorus Creek during the construction of the canal between 1830 and 1833.

Dam No. 3 across the Codorus Creek came right off the southern corner of Small’s mill at that location; which allowed for a very short head race to the water wheels, and eventually water turbines, within the mill. The slackwater elevation from the downstream Dam No. 4 set the tail race height; right up against the end wall of the mill, as shown in the illustration. Further details are provided later in this post.

Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the four original illustrations in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of illustrations, or if they have been removed from the ydr.com site.

The links to the other posts in this series follow:

The research on the location of Dam No. 3 had several inconsistencies. On Grant Voaden’s 6/23/73 summary sheet for Small’s Codorus Mill, within GV-49 File at York County History Center, he wrote the dam was about 200 yards upstream, i.e. south, from the mill. That seems to be the earliest source for later uses of the “200 yards location.” However that dam placement is not consistent with information on Sanborn Maps and historic aerial photos; showing the dam coming right off the southern corner of Small’s Codorus Mill.

The following illustration is a split image. The left side utilizes the 1908 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map drawing of Small’s Codorus Mill. The right side is a visualization of the location of Dam No. 3 and Lock No. 3 via my assessment of the whole of my research.

Lock 3, in the 1833 illustration, is required to lower, or raise, a canal boat 7-feet height; i.e. 343-feet minus 336-feet; the elevations of the slackwater pools on either side of the lock. Lock 3 is located 3.3-miles, via the Codorus Creek, from the West Market Street landing of the Codorus Navigation Company, and located 7.7-miles from the Susquehanna River.

The yellow buildings, on Sanborn maps, indicate they are of primarily frame construction, although the mill building does contain the note the first level is stone. The warehouse, attached to the west side of Small’s Codorus Mill, is shown in red; indicating brick construction.

Prior to the construction of Codorus Navigation’s Dam No. 3 and Lock No. 3, there was a smaller dam in this general area; was that the dam 200 yards upstream? Michael Weidner operated a small-scale water-powered wire manufacturing business in that vicinity. That Michael Weidner business was sold at Sheriff’s sale in 1830 to John Brillinger. Is that the same Michael Weidner who operated the forge across from Loucks Mill? I raise that question, because I’ve discovered Michael Weidner, the elder, also had a son Michael Weidner, who is listed as a blacksmith. The perplexing Weidner family history research is far from complete and is a story for another time: getting back to the subject at hand; the Codorus Canal.

The following September 18, 1937 historic aerial photo shows the exact same area as my 1833/1908 illustration. Grant Voaden determined that the last run of Small’s Codorus Mill by water power was in 1945. The dam, still providing the 7-foot head for water power, was blown up by the Army Corps of Engineers on September 5, 1945. It was one of the first things the Corps did upon getting back to the Codorus Flood Control work following the September 2, 1945 surrender of the Japanese and the end of World War II.

Looking upstream, and downstream, from Small’s Codorus Mill, on 1937/1938 historic aerial photos, the indicated dam, in 1937, was the only one apparent; and it matched the placement on the Sanborn map and was consistent with features in several old Small’s Codorus Mill photos at the York County History Center.

The following 2015 Google birds eye WESTWARD LOOKING aerial photo shows the same area as the previous illustrations. I’ve annotated where the Northern Extension of the York Heritage Rail Trail is located on east side of the Codorus Creek in Springettsbury Township. Conagra continues to operate the former Small’s flour mill, located on west side of the Codorus Creek in Manchester Township.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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The story of Zech’s Bakery in Yoe

Nancy Wilt shared the pictured Zech’s Bakery souvenir of the York Fair. Nancy saw Zech’s mentioned in last weeks post: York County bakeries of 50 years ago. She remembered her Mom constantly bringing home Zech’s goodies during the 50s and 60s.

Nancy wrote, “All of Zech’s goodies were incredible. Is Zech’s still in business? If it is, I’ll certainly plan a return visit to York, just to partake of goodies at Zech’s Bakery. Except for the goodies, I don’t remember much about Zech’s. Can you furnish the story of Zech’s Bakery?”

A short story of Zech’s Bakery is provided via research in old newspapers and on Ancestry.com.

Zech’s Bakery was located at the rear of 72 North Main Street in Yoe, Pa. The bakery operated at that location from 1946 into 1970. Their bakery products were sold at Central Market in York (the Zech’s stand was near the Beaver Street entrance), at New Eastern Market on Memory Lane in Springettsbury Township, and at their store in the Queensgate Shopping Center. It was noted they also sold their bakery products at “Fine Grocery Stores;” however I did not discover specifically which stores. Also, per the Zech’s Bakery souvenir of the York Fair, they most likely maintained a stand at the fair.

George E. Zech established Zech’s Bakery in 1946, when he was 45-years old. George had prior experience, working in various capacities, for several bakeries in York. Elsie E. DeHoff married George E. Zech on June 11, 1936 at Trinity Lutheran Church in York. The newspaper article reporting their wedding, noted their occupations at that time.

“Mr. Zech is employed as bookkeeper at Minnich’s bakery. He is president of the York Civic Opera Company, and is soloist of Trinity Lutheran Church choir. Mrs. Zech is employed at the Bon-Ton Department store. She is organist and choirmaster at Trinity Church.”

In 1950, George Zech entered a national contest among professional bakers; his pie recipe won. Zech’s slogan was “Bakers of Home-Type Baked Products.” In 1965, Zech’s Bakery had 28 full-time employees. Zech’s was often in the news for donating their bakery products to various charitable functions. At the age of 69, George retired and all his bakery equipment was sold at public sale on November 16, 1970. George E. Zech died a little over a year later, on January 2, 1972 and is buried in Dallastown Union Cemetery.

I asked Nancy Wilt to put together a list of her Top Ten favorite Zech’s bakery products. That will be the subject of a future post. If any of my readers wish to provide their lists, those might make for neat comparisons.

Links to posts of several old time York County restaurant:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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Navigating the Codorus via canal locks

YorksPast continues the series of posts exploring the history of the Codorus Canal. Completed in November of 1833, this canal allowed navigating 70-foot long canal boats between downtown York and the Susquehanna River.

Part five explores how the Codorus Creek was navigated via thirteen strategically placed locks between the Borough of York and the Susquehanna River. This illustration utilizes my research findings to provide a visualization of the area surrounding Locks 1 & 2 of the Codorus Navigation Company. I’ve labeled the illustration with the year the canal was fully complete, i.e. 1833. The waterways are shown blue, the tow paths are brown, and the roads are shown gray even though they were dirt roads in 1833.

Besides the 1833 illustration, I’ve included contrasting annotated 1938 and 2015 aerial photos of the same area; i.e where Route 30 (Arsenal Road) now bridges the Codorus Creek. This area is located 1.7-miles, via the creek, to the West Market Street Bridge and 9.3-miles, via the creek, to the Susquehanna River.

Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the three original illustrations in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of illustrations, or if they have been removed from the ydr.com site.

The links to the other posts in this series follow:

The 1903 map illustration in Part 4 showed the location of Codorus Navigation’s Dam 1. That dam provided an approximately 353-feet slackwater elevation throughout the Codorus Creek within the Borough of York and within the 0.9-mile canal cut to Loucks Mill.

Dam 2, between Loucks Mill and Weidner’s Forge, created a slackwater pool behind it at an elevation of approximately 347-feet. For canal boats to travel between the pools of water at these two elevations, Lock 1 was utilized. That lock could lower, or raise, a canal boat the necessary 6-feet height. Lock 1 was also a weigh lock.

The cost for shipping whole loads of selected items over the Codorus Navigation waterway was per ton. For example, the charge to ship coal was 30-cents per ton. Metal goods, such as castings were shipped at 50-cents per ton. Once a year, empty canal boats were weighed in Lock 1 to get a certified empty weight.

If a canal boat came through Lock 1, which required its weight to determine its cost for traveling over the Codorus Canal, when the boat is in the lock, enough of the water was drained from the lock to allow the boat to gently rest on large oak scale timbers in the floor of the lock. The lockmaster then subtracted the previously measured empty boat weight to obtain the weight of the shipped cargo.

Next week, in Part 6, I’ll explore the site of Dam 3 and Lock 3 on the Codorus Navigation waterway. The slackwater pool, at an elevation of 343-feet, behind Dam 3 extends upstream to the base of Dam 2. Lock 2, in the 1833 illustration, is required to lower, or raise, a canal boat the necessary 4-feet height; i.e. 347-feet minus 343-feet.

The following April 23, 1938 historic aerial photo shows the same area as my 1833 illustration. Loucks Mill operators are again planting in their meadow, where the canal locks had been located. Grant Voaden determined that the last run of Loucks Mill by water power was in 1928. In this 1938 aerial photo, ten years later, the vegetation still outlines the location of the head race and a part of the canal cut, which continued to feed the head race; long after the canal no longer operated.

The following 2015 Google birds eye aerial photo shows the same area as the previous illustrations. Note the Codorus Creek flood control differences between the 1938 and 2015 aerial photos. The Army Corps of Engineers did not widen, construct dikes and provide creek bank protection in this area until the 1940s. Today, the support positions are still visible from the One-Lane Bridge, known as Shiverin Liz, which was utilized as the sole way to cross the Codorus at this location until 1948.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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York County bakeries of 50 years ago

Friday afternoon, following a family history research visit, I was invited to provide impromptu instructions to a group of former Yorkers living in Laurel, Maryland; on tips in navigating and searching the YorksPast blog site. The group invited me out to dinner afterwards, where the topic of conversation evolved into memories of York County restaurants and bakeries that existed when they graduated high school.

I recognized some of the bakery names thrown out, but not others. I was familiar with: Mrs. Smith’s Pies in York, Knaub’s Cakes in York Township, Barton’s Bakery in Mount Wolf and Maple Donuts in York.

The other bakeries were scattered around the county: Kauffman’s Bakery in East Prospect, Barnhart’s Bakery in Red Lion, Zinn’s Pies in Hanover and Zech’s Bakery in Yoe. Two other donut bakeries were also mentioned: Dixie Cream Donuts in York and Melo Cream Donuts in Dallastown.

Everybody in our group of 11 wrote, on a piece of our napkin, our selection of favorite bakery and favorite donut shop from those times; i.e. about 50 years ago. The voting was widely scattered. Barton’s won as favorite bakery with three votes. Dixie Cream was voted favorite donut with five votes.

Links to posts of several old time York County restaurant:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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Codorus Navigation canal cut north of York

YorksPast continues the series of posts exploring the history of the Codorus Canal. Completed in November of 1833, this canal allowed navigating 70-foot long canal boats between downtown York and the Susquehanna River.

Part four explores the nine-tenths of a mile long canal cut; located just north of York. Information within agreements, and lawsuits, between mill owner George Loucks and the Codorus Navigation Company provide key insights into the specifics of this canal cut and the canal dams at both ends.

In 1830s, the dam that would be at the south end of the canal cut was known as Loucks Dam before the canal was built; then as Canal Dam 1. The dam at the north end of the canal cut was known as Weidner’s Dam before the canal was built; then as Canal Dam 2. Weidner’s Dam supplied the elevated water which powered a waterwheel at Michael Weidner’s Forge on the west side edge of the Codorus Creek; directly across the creek from George Loucks Grist Mill; of which I provided pertinent history in Part 3.

The postcard, at the beginning of this post, is a circa 1906 view, while standing on the east side of Codorus Creek, looking southwest towards Loucks Custom Mill “B” along the west side of Codorus Creek, in Manchester Township. However in 1830s this was the location of Michael Weidner’s Forge; which utilized a waterwheel to power forge bellows and trip hammers, by the water flowing from Weidner’s Dam, shown at the left side of the postcard.

Here is an interesting fact about this postcard. The barn in the background of this postcard now houses San Carlos Restaurant, which opened in the barn during 1962. Details are provided later in this post.

The well established Loucks family, on the east side of the creek, purchased Weidner’s operations on the west side of the creek and converted them into a custom grist mill; in the 1840s. Loucks Mills were on both sides of the creek at that location for over 50-years. The dam between the Loucks Mills came to be called Loucks Dam; misspelled as Laucks on the postcard.

Besides the postcard, I’ve included annotated 1894 and 1903 maps that provide neat insight into the canal cut and the canal dams at both ends. Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the three original illustrations in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of illustrations, or if they have been removed from the ydr.com site.

The links to the other posts in this series follow:

I’ve annotated a 1894 Sanborn-Perris Map page containing Loucks Custom Mill “B” on the west side of the Codorus Creek. I’ve added an arrow to show the general direction of the postcard view. The dam went diagonally across the creek, as shown in the Sanborn Map and confirmed on 1937 aerial photos, that show diagonal ripples where the dam had been. The yellow buildings indicate they are primarily of frame construction, however the Mill and Barn both contain the note that first level is stone. The mill building, right on creek’s edge, was destroyed in the flood of 1933.

I’ve annotated a Library of Congress color version of the 1903 Fred’k B. Roe Map of York, PA. In 1903, the nine-tenths of a mile long canal cut, located just north of York, had long since been relegated to the sole purpose of functioning as the head race for Loucks Mill. However descriptions of Dam No. 1 and the canal cut mirror its placement in on the 1903 map. It is the best map I’ve found to illustrate the section of the Codorus Navigation Canal immediately north of York.

This Codorus Navigation design provided for 2.4-miles along the Codorus Creek from the southern border of the Borough of York to Loucks Mill with one water elevation; including 1.5-miles of slackwater navigation through York plus 0.9-miles of canal navigation to the Loucks Mill (now the location where Route 30 crosses the Codorus Creek).

Next week, in Part 5, based upon everything I’ve dug up on the Codorus Canal, I’ll provide a sketch of what the two Loucks Mill canal locks might have looked like. That will be followed by the continuing series of weekly posts as I continue working my way down the Codorus Naviagtion Canal to the Susquehanna River.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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Elmwood WWII Honor Roll built by WWI Veteran

This Roll of Honor stood at the East Market Street entrance to Elmwood Boulevard in Spring Garden Township. A World War I veteran constructed the Roll of Honor following WWII to honor Elmwood residents who served in World War II.

The theme of this honor roll, “Children of Yesterday, Heroes of Today, Guarantors of Tomorrow” is spelled out above the lists of veterans. This photo appeared in the March 17, 1976, issue of the York Daily Record. Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the original photo in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of photo, or if it has been removed from the ydr.com site.

The photo was in the newspaper because Harold N. Reihart got the idea for a “Make America Better” Bicentennial project; after seeing the weathered condition of the Elmwood Roll of Honor. Reihart, the Chairman of the York County Board of Realtors, had realtors check, all around York County, on the condition of these monuments honoring veterans. The realtors discovered many were in need of repairs and attempted to find organizations or persons who would accept responsibility for assuming maintenance.

Using information extracted from old newspapers, I discovered World War I veteran John J. Laity, Sr. built the Elmwood Honor Roll following World War II. John was a local cabinetmaker who then resided at 1507 2nd Avenue in Elmwood. Two of John’s sons served in the Army during WWII: Francis A. Laity and John J. Laity, Jr.

The Laity family business was woodworking. John’s father Samuel Laity started the business in 1919 as the York Pedestal Company. They operated for many years at 350 South Albemarle Street and specialized in church furniture. John Laity changed the business name to Laity Manufacturing Company, as his sons got involved and the business moved to Hallam.

After the Laity’s moved to Hallam, an Elmwood neighborhood grocer, Harry Kugle of First Avenue accepted the responsibility of maintenance for the Elmwood Honor Roll. No one stepped forward to do the maintenance after Harry died, which resulted in the condition shown in the 1976 photo.

I noticed in Joan Concilio’s recent post, that reader John Allen stated the Victory Fire Company No. 2 at Sixth Avenue and Wheaton Street in Spring Garden Township was given permission and moved the Elmwood Honor Roll to their engine house and social hall.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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York Pullmans win big at Pimlico in 1908

On the Fourth of July, in 1908, a card of automotive races replaced the usual horse races at Maryland’s Pimlico track. Competing were makes such as: Ford, Overland, Autocar, Cameron, Moon, Stearns and Pullman. The York built Pullmans were the big winners.

The pictured “Model/Serial Number” plate appeared on a 1910 Pullman Model-O Roadster. Pullman automobiles were produced in York, PA from 1903 to 1917. Originally known as the York Automobile Company, the firm that produced the Pullmans was reorganized as the York Motor Car Company during January of 1906. Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the original photo in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of photo, or if it have been removed from the ydr.com site.

The York Daily reported Robert Morton and Roy Stains were the Pullman drivers entered in four events at Pimlico: Event 2 run as a 10-miler Maryland Runabout Championship and open to stock touring runabouts or tourabouts, Event 3 run as a 5-miler open to stock touring cars of 24.1 to 40 horsepower, Event 5 run as a 10-miler runabout free-for-all handicap, and Event 6 run as a 50-miler championship open to stripped stock cars or stock chassis of 45 horsepower and under.

Quoting from the July 5, 1908 issue of The Baltimore Sun’s coverage of the auto races at Pimlico on the Fourth of July, in 1908:

“Considering the multiplicity of attractions yesterday, the Motorcar Racing Association has every reason to be satisfied with the splendid patronage accorded its Fourth of July automobile races. Something like 3,000 people turned out and the old course presented quite as brilliant an appearance as on a race day of the Maryland Jockey Club.”

“Perhaps the [most anticipated] feature number of the program was the Pimlico Free for All Handicap at 10 miles, run off as the fifth event. The best drivers had entered here. The talent was badly fooled in this race. The race went to Pullman 40 H. P., which under Robert Morton’s skillful guidance was from start to finish; with the Pullman 30 H. P., driven by Roy Stains in second place. The time of the winner was 10.36, a great performance over the Pimlico track.” Resulting in an average speed of 56.6 MPH.

“It was a banner day for the Pullman cars. Besides winning the [Pimlico Free for All Handicap] race they were first in the 50-mile championship, first in the touring car race and second and third in the Maryland Runabout Championship.” The following abridged Pullman details are pulled from the race summaries:

Robert Morton won the 50-mile championship at a time of 57.08. The other Pullman driver, Roy Stains dropped out on the 28th mile with tire trouble. An Autocar, driven by John Auchfield, finished second in 62.22. The winning Pullman car averaged 52.5 MPH.

Robert Morton won the 5-miler for stock touring cars at a time of 6.06. The second place Moon, driven by E. L. Leinbach, finished 50 seconds later at 6:56. The winning Pullman touring car averaged 49.2 MPH.

E. L. Leinbach won the 10-miler Maryland Runabout Championship for stock runabouts, in a Stearns, at a time of 11.04. Roy Stains was second in a Pullman. Robert Morton was third in a Pullman. The winning Stearns runabout averaged 54.2 MPH.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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Loucks Mill key to Codorus Canal

YorksPast continues the series of posts exploring the history of the Codorus Canal. Completed in November of 1833, this canal allowed navigating 70-foot long canal boats between downtown York and the Susquehanna River.

Part three explores pertinent history of Loucks Mill. Information within agreements, and lawsuits, between mill owner George Loucks and the Codorus Navigation Company provide key insights into the design of a challenging section canal immediately north of York.

The two photographs look west towards Loucks Mill, while standing on the roadway known as Arsenal Road later in its existence. The upper, ca. 1870, photo shows the tall brick mill, surrounded by horse drawn wagons and a railroad car, at the left side; filled with barrels of flour. This Northern Central rail siding to the south side of Loucks Mill can be seen in the annotated 1894 Sanborn map.

The lower, 1969 photo was taken shortly before the mill was demolished, in order to widen the elevated 2-lane Arsenal Road, to create a 4-lane Route 30. Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the original photos in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of photos, or if they have been removed from the ydr.com site.

A neat 1948 annotated aerial photo of the whole area surrounding Loucks Mill can be seen at this LINK.

The links to the other posts in this series follow:

In Part 2, we learned of Canal engineer Simeon Guilford plans for the Codorus Navigation Canal involving “Louck’s dam, which would be removed; and another substituted at the present head of the millpond, to supply with water a canal cut thence to the mill.” A short history of Loucks Mill and how it was oriented on the east side of Codorus Creek is beneficial background.

Bartholemew Maul built the first mill at this site between 1743 and 1758. There have been many owners, however the mill is generally known as Loucks Mill, due to the four generations of Loucks that owned the mill between 1805 and 1901.

The mill building shown in the photos is not the Loucks Mill, which stood at the time the Codorus Navigation Canal was being built. In 1830, Loucks Mill was a 2-story stone mill; whose walls collapsed during a fire on April 29, 1864. The shown brick mill was completed on the same site, February 1, 1865, and stood for 104-years.

The last run of the mill under waterpower was during June of 1928 when Samuel Hershey owned the mill. The Loucks Mill Dam was removed during the summer of 1929. Mill details are per Grant Voaden (GV#50) research; accessed at the York County History Center.

As you’ll see next week, in Part 4, the water feeding the head race to operate the overshoot water wheels, then water turbines, in Loucks Mill was tied to the Codorus Canal in such a manner, that even after the canal boats ceased to operate, certain parts of the canal remained in the immediate vicinity at least until 1929.

Links to related posts include:

Reading the HEADLINES; A Quick Index to ALL YorksPast Posts

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York Chocolate Company had a Hershey connection

York Chocolate Company was established in 1919. In 1920, the company obtained a trademark on their brand of chocolate: “Swiss-Alpine Style Sweet Milk Chocolate.” Click on this LINK for a yorkblog.com Full View of the original illustration in this post if details are cut off in the cropping of illustration, or if it has been removed from the ydr.com site.

In this Part 2, further details about the York Chocolate Company, including the Hershey connection, are shared, complimenting the story of my discovery of the Chocolate factory in York Revolution’s centerfield.

I reviewed a copy of the January 20, 1919 Charter for the York Chocolate Company at the York County Archives. The corporation was formed “for the purpose of purchasing, manufacturing and selling cocoa and chocolate and all the products thereof.” The shareholders of the company were: D. Frank Magee (York, PA) 700-shares; D. F. Magee (Lancaster, PA) 10-shares; and Charles H. Moore (York, PA) 10-shares. $280,000 in capital was raised.

D. Frank Magee was 35-years old upon the establishment of the York Chocolate Company. He served as President of the company throughout its whole existence. Magee was born in Lancaster, PA, on May 15, 1883, and one of the minor shareholders was his father, D. F. Magee. Charles H. Moore, the other minor shareholder, served at the Treasurer of the company.

D. Frank Magee started planning this enterprise April 6, 1918, when he purchased a vacant 4-story, brick factory building on the northeast corner of North Duke and Hay Streets in York. Newspapers reported the Sphinx Motor Company formerly occupied that building. D. Frank Magee and his wife Esther sell that property to the York Chocolate Company on January 30, 1919; ten-days after the Charter was granted.

Within weeks, the factory was fully equipped with all the machinery to produce milk chocolate, such as: Chocolate Mixers, Racine Depositors, Bausman Disc Refiners, Kent Refiners, Chocolate Coolers, plus Ferguson and Haas Wrapping Machines. D. Frank Magee had the factory producing chocolate in record time. All the while he is living with his wife and children at 663 Linden Avenue in York, PA.

Based upon how quickly the factory was put into operation, it was obvious that D. Frank Magee had prior chocolate making experience, however York newspapers did not mention those details. During my wider search, I discovered an October 2, 1916 issue of the Lebanon Semi-Weekly News reporting: “In East Hershey, the imposing residence of D. Frank Magee is nearing completion.” As a result, I suspected Magee received his experience at the Hershey Chocolate factory.

However, it was the August 12, 1916 issue of the Harrisburg Telegraph where I found the definitive answer, in a little item on page 4: “Six houses are in the course of building at Hershey, the most elaborate being the handsome residence of D. Frank Magee, superintendent of the Hershey Chocolate Company.”

There are all kinds of possible scenarios as to why D. Frank Magee left, or was forced to leave, such a prominent position at the Hershey Chocolate Company; sometime between late-1916 and early-1918. If it was simply Magee’s decision, to start his own chocolate company, it turned out to be a bad choice; since the York Chocolate Company failed prior to seeing the decade of the 1930s.

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